Located in southwestern Asia, the Caspian Sea ranks as the largest inland body of water in the world. Several rivers empty into the Caspian Sea, although their flow has diminished due to dams and lakes. The sea has no outlet, and water level is maintained by evaporation, especially in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol, one of the many large gulfs on the eastern portion of the coastline.
Caspian Depression (Russian, prikaspiyskaya nizmennost'), a lowland region which straddles the boundary between Europe and Asia, and which contains some of the lowest elevations on either continent. The depression is located to the north of the Caspian Sea. It has an area of about 200 sq km (73.6 sq mi). The depression declines from a maximum height of about 149 m (479 ft) to about 28 m (91.9 ft) below sea level. It is traversed by the Volga, Ural, Embi, Terek, and Kuma rivers. Numerous intermittent streams and rivers are also found here. At various times in its geologic past the depression was inundated by the Caspian Sea, which separated from the Black Sea about one million years ago. A large natural gas deposit was discovered in the Caspian Depression near the city of Astrakhan' in 1976. The depression, which is located in Kazakhstan and Russia, is used primarily for livestock raising.
Caspian Sea (Latin, Caspium Mare or Hyrcanium Mare), salt-water lake, south-western Asia, the largest inland body of water in the world. The Caspian Sea is bordered on the west by Azerbaijan and Russia, on the north-east and east by Kazakhstan, also on the east by Turkmenistan, and on the south by Iran. It extends about 1,210 km (750 mi) from north to south and between about 210 to 436 km (130 to 271 mi) from east to west. It has an area of about 371,000 sq km (143,250 sq mi). The Caspian coastline is irregular, with large gulfs on the east, including Krasnovodsk Gulf and the very shallow Kara-Bogaz-Gol (Garabogazkِl Aylagy), which acts as an evaporation basin and is the site of a major chemical plant that extracts salts from the deposits.
The Caspian Sea has a mean depth of about 170 m (550 ft) and is deepest in the south, reaching a maximum depth of 995 m (3,133 ft). Its level varies from year to year but averages about 28 m (92 ft) below sea level. In the 1960s and 1970s the level fell substantially, partly because water was withdrawn from tributary rivers for irrigation and other purposes. In 1980, a dyke was built across the mouth of Kara-Bogaz-Gol to reduce water loss, creating a lake that was expected to last for several years. Instead, the gulf dried up completely by 1983. In the meantime, the level of the Caspian Sea began rising again. To restore water flow into Kara-Bogaz-Gol an aqueduct was built. The sea level has risen by more than 2 m (6 ft 6 in) since 1978, and coastal communities are increasingly susceptible to flooding, especially in spring and autumn. The low-lying cities of Makhachkala and Derbent are particularly at risk.
The southern and south-western shorelines of the Caspian Sea are bordered by the Elburz and Greater Caucasus mountain ranges. The sea has numerous tributaries, notably the Volga (which forms an extensive delta), Ural, and Embi rivers, all of which flow into it from the north. Other tributaries include the Gorgan (Gurgan) and Atrek rivers, flowing from the east, and the Kura River, flowing from the west. The sea has no outlet. The Caspian Sea is linked to the Baltic, White, and Black seas by an extensive network of inland waterways, chief of which is the Volga. These waterways provide an outlet to northern Europe for the oil fields of Baku on the Ab؛eron peninsula. In the 1990s, consortia of oil companies began to prospect for oil in the Caspian Sea in the expectation of oil deposits comparable to those discovered in the North Sea. The Caspian Sea also contains highly productive fisheries, yielding valuable catches of sturgeon (the chief source of caviar), salmon, perch, herring, and carp although these have been adversely affected by fluctuating water levels, pollution, and over-fishing. For instance, the number of sturgeon is believed to have decreased from about 200 million in 1990 to about 60 million in the mid-1990s. Other animal life in the Caspian Sea includes turtles, porpoises, and seals.
Navigation is frequently dangerous because of violent south-eastern storms, and during the winter months the northern parts of the Caspian Sea are closed by ice. The chief ports are Krasnovodsk, Turkmenistan; Baku, Azerbaijan; and Makhachkala, Russia.
province (1991 pop. 3,793,149), c.20,400 sq mi (52,840 sq km),
N Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north.
Sari is the capital; other cities include Babol, Amul, and Gorgan.
It is traversed by the Elburz Mts.,
which run parallel to the Caspian Sea and divide the province
into many isolated valleys. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco,
sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore.
Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement,
textiles, cotton, and fishing.
Mazandaran changed hands often early in its history and was incorporated
into the Persian Empire by Shah Abbas I in 1596. It was formerly known as Tabaristan.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright (c) 2002 Columbia University Press
Mazandaran province with 24091 square meters area and population of 2603008 persons . Its borders are as follow from north to caspian sea from west to gilan province . from south with semnan and Tehran provinces and from east to golestan province with is townships , 36 cities , 38 districts , 104 rural districs , 43% of the cities are located at the north border with caspian sea . This province is the only province with three high ways to Tehran known as kandavan , haraz ans savad koh . The three airports of noshahr , sari and ramsar have direct airlines services to Tehran and the other cities . National rail way pass through this province . At the coastar way from ramsar to babolsar with the dixtance of 220 kilometers is 10 to 300 meters away from the sea shore . This province on the basis of geological and geographical conditions 12 milions inland tour tourists and 20 thousands foaeig tourists visit this city every years . Presence of caxpian sea with beautiful coastal area and beaches forests , jungles , cavres , water falls , rivers warm mineral wares , springs lake and the other attractive p;aces and also with historical monuments such as Mir Bozorg tomb in amol , savad koh lajeem and resket tower in noor baladeh and kandlos in noshahr etc . made this province a prominent place for tourists . There are more than 69 residence places such as motel , hotel , hotel apartment , guest house , coustal tourist camps with total 6458 beds and 391 intra cities restaurents . About 3000 villas and rental houses and 90 travelling agencies in services for the tourists .
Due to in efficencies of the travelling and tourism agencies in giving proper services , in group travelling is not accepted by Iranial public .
In this book it has been tried to solve the problems for tour and travelling agencies in mazandaran province , so to be ablke to give better services to the tourists and travels . Further more it has been fried to introduce the historical and tourist attractive places which are unknown to the tourist guide who work in tourist and travelling agencies of mazandaran . In many of such places there is step on guide too the route of reaching to the places the time required and the other information are given .
Also the distances and the directions of the township to the historical and tourist attractive places are explained in detail the tourist quiks by referring to this book will improve the is still of quidance so the tourist will be well instructed .
Mazandaran province with the population 2,062,008 persons comprises 4.33% of dtotal country populaion and with 24091 square kilometers area has 1.46% of the country total area . This province has 15 townships with the name of ramsar , tonekabon , chalos , noshahr , noor , Mahmuod abad , amol , babol , babolsar , gaemshahr , joybar , savadkoh , sari , nekah , sorak , kya sar , kyakola , pole safie , zir ab , shirgah , alasht , amir kola , fereydon kenar , rineh , chamestan , royan marzan abad , kelar dasht , tonekabon , abbas abad , salman shahr , katalam and sadat mahaleh 38 districts and 104 rural districts .
For having a good tour certain aspect for the better performance should be kept in mind which are as follow , proper planning , good management , good transportation vehicle a skillful quide who know every things regarding tourists attractive places , suitable residance places providing good food etc . Please refere to the given tables .
Tehran - gorgan rail way passes through mazandaran cities of pole sefid , zir ab , shirgah , gaem shahr , sari , nekah , behshahr and galogah . In addition in playing very important role in communication , has very ttraction , veresk bridge and se khate tala are the unique attraction . The beautiful kandowan mountain high way with the distance of 181 kilometers from amol and savadkoh high way with the distance of 250 kilometers from qaemshahr connect mazandaran to Tehran theses three route . There are about 200 intracities restaurents on these three route these route have while passing through .
There is airline services from mazandaran with other countries through three airport of noshahr , sari and ramsar . There are two ports of amir abad and noshahr belp in economic development of province . There are some gargo ships passenger ships transport passengers to the other coastal countries of caspian sea the name of transportation companies are given in the table number ...